Animal Abuse and Domestic Violence – A Correlated Generalized Deviance

I believe it is safe to say that a majority of defendants charged in our courts with animal abuse have prior domestic violence convictions as well. It is because of the “generalized deviance” that domestic violence and animal abuse are correlated. Anti-social behavior of different levels can happen in one individual but how that individual came to exercise the deviance is more complicated as there are many pathways that lead to it. An example of one of these exercises is the individuals use of violence or other anti-social manipulations to “solve” problems which is called “modeling” and explains why violence is often intergenerational. Although animal abuse and domestic violence are correlated, it varies as to which occurs first.

But are there any numbers we can connect here; any studies conducted to make this deviance a little more tangible? A study done in New Jersey found that in 88% of households where children were physically abused, there were records of animal abuse as well. In Wisconsin, four out of five battered women cases revealed the partner had been violent toward pets. The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence conducted a study of abuse victims after arriving at domestic violence shelters and found that 85.4% of women and 63.0% of children reported incidents of pet abuse. The Chicago Police Department’s Domestic Violence Program compiled a history of arrestees for animal fighting/animal abuse for the period of 2000-2001 and found that approximately 30% had a conviction of domestic violence on their record. Animal abuse is often associated with other serious crimes such as drug offenses, gangs, weapons violence, sexual assault, and domestic violence and the individuals committing these acts of violence against animals are viewed as a danger to the public and therefore, must be addressed. The whole premise of an animal abuser is to demonstrate power. The abuser will batter an animal to hold control over his family, to isolate them and enforce submission. He will abuse a pet to perpetuate a fearful environment; to prevent a victim from leaving or coerce them to return. They will batter an animal to punish a victim for showing independence.

First responders and professionals who investigate abuse should be aware and trained to observe the cycle of violence. Some states practice this observance and take it a step further by implementing cross-reporting laws. When an animal control officer is called to investigate animal abuse in a home with children, they are mandated to report child abuse when animal abuse is confirmed. Children are generally more willing to discuss what happened to a pet than they are to their own victimization. In Ohio, any child under the age of 18 years of age who commits cruelty to a pet, is required to undergo psychological evaluation to determine individual or family counseling as necessary. The legislation also permit’s the court to include a protection order for any companion animal in the home of the person seeking a criminal protection order, domestic violence protection order, a civil stalking order, a sexual offense protection order, or the approval of a civil domestic violence consent agreement. Often a partner will abuse a pet that is in the home as a tactic to keep the victim under control. It is understood that many victims will not leave when it puts their pets in harm’s way. When questioning victims and their children, first responders should be alert for signs of child and/or pet victimization. They should ask if the abuser or anyone else threatened to harm their pet and ask if they need help finding a safe place for their pet to go if they leave. Many victims will not prosecute their abuser however, animal cruelty prosecution can result in incarceration or treatment that is equal to results from a domestic violence prosecution.

Domestic Violence Shelters, Animal Shelters, and Humane Organizations can do much to offer protection for animal victims. When working with abuse victims in their safety planning, be sure they include their pets. Question them about any threats or injuries to their pets. Work with legislators to include pets in orders of protection and educate judges on the necessities of these inclusions. Team up with your local animal control and humane organizations and local domestic violence shelters to establish emergency housing of pets coming from homes experiencing violence. If there is no space available, establish a network of homes that provide emergency care for these pets through foster care agencies then incorporate these connections in school programs where they might reach children who are at risk of family violence. Also, many YWCA’s have pet shelter programs that are in partnership with the humane society, local clinics, kennels, stables, and veterinarians.

Unfortunately, victims of domestic violence often choose to stay in abusive relationships to protect their pets. A study shows that 71% of women seeking “safe haven” in domestic violence shelters had companion animals threatened, hurt, or killed by their abuser. Many victims never even go to a shelter because of this fear for their pets. It is in recognition of this fact that many states have passed laws including pets in court-issued orders of protection and to include any animal that is harmed or threatened with harm in the state’s definition of “domestic violence.” Society doesn’t consider animal cruelty as severe as violence against humans but it is increasingly viewed as a serious issue by professionals in law enforcement and mental health. Effective prosecution of animal abuse can provide early and timely response to those who are, or who are at risk of becoming, a threat to the safety of others. It is a tool for protection for victims of family violence, developing new skills and understanding which will help build a truly compassionate society.

Law Firms Don’t Need Marketing! We Sell Ourselves!

Law Firms are not traditionally viewed as businesses in the same way that other companies are. This derives largely from the fact that lawyers have long occupied a different position in our society than business-people. For good or worse, however, things have changed over the past few decades, and more than ever, law firms are now acting like other businesses.

Unfortunately, this also means that law firms now have to put more effort into certain aspects of business that they previously ignored. Marketing, in particular, is an area that law firms, now more than ever, are having to focus on. Competition for clients is tougher than ever, making it necessary to differentiate your legal practice from that of your competitors. How can one efficiently and smartly go about this?

To begin with, you need to come up with a consistent message. If you tell people 100 different things about your firm, then you run the risk that they don’t remember any of them. In addition, no one will ever think that you are an expert in any area. Part of coming up with a consistent message is focusing in on a particular area of practice. The lawyers at your firm may have experience in a number of different areas, but when it comes to marketing yourself, you need to target one area at a time. Pick your strongest area or the area you most want to grow, and build your message around that area. Once you get a lot of clients coming in because of your consistent marketing in that area, you can move on to another.

Use real testimonials. Obviously, if you’re just starting out, then this is tough, so don’t worry about it. However, if you have any experience at all, ask your prior clients if you can use them for a very short, written testimonial. Potential clients are heavily swayed by another person who was in their same situation telling them that you helped with that situation. This kind of marketing is way more persuasive than you telling them over and over how good you are at something.

Always imagine your perfect client. This tip is more of a general thought-process than anything else. Whenever you do any type of advertising or marketing for your law firm, you need to make sure that you’re always thinking about it from the perspective of your perfect client. It sounds simple, but what it really requires is going out and getting to know your perfect clients. Ask them what they’re looking for in a law firm or a lawyer, and ask them what their concerns are. If you’re able to do this, it is an extremely valuable part of your marketing.

I love marketing, but at first it was very daunting for me. I had no idea what to do, what to say, or where to market myself. Even now, I always question my techniques to see if I can improve them. Keep in mind that marketing takes a little time, so don’t give up right after you get started. At the same time, if something isn’t working after a few months, re-evaluate and try to figure what’s not working about it.

Tax Relief Firms – Is it a Law Firm, Accounting Firm, Or Something Else?

The tax relief industry has experienced significant change over the past several years. As the economy worsened and Americans faced increased financial pressures, many people and businesses sought relief from the strain by not paying their taxes. In response, an enormous number of tax companies started sprouting up to absorb the unprecedented demand for tax services. Tax gurus on late-night TV and radio advertise, they’ll “settle your tax debt for pennies on the dollar.” Despite being tax geeks ourselves, we couldn’t make sense of which tax companies are good and which are bad.

Tax Relief Firms – Choosing the Right One For You

Under the broad umbrella of “tax relief firms,” there are three types of professional firms: Law firms, CPA Firms, and Hybrids. The first two types are self-explanatory, and since there’s really no industry-standard name for the latter category, calling them a “hybrid” is probably acceptable. But which of the three categories is right for you?

Law Firms

As you know, a law firm is made up of ONLY lawyers. A law firm may employ assistants, like paralegals, but a tax attorney is ALWAYS the person ultimately responsible for any tax work performed. All tax attorneys employed by a law firm are subject to the ethics rules and disciplinary action of their state bar. A tax attorney may generally represent any client in any state on any U.S. federal income tax matter.

The pros to employing a law firm are that you can feel comfortable that (i) an attorney is the one ultimately responsible for your tax matter, (ii) you have a clear method to file grievances (i.e., with the sate bar) if the attorney screws up, and (iii) lawyers are subject to strict ethics rules so they should work according to the highest of standards. The cons are that law firms generally are more expensive than the other two types of tax firms. Additionally, some law firms (or attorneys) do not focus solely (or even primarily) on tax related work, so they may lack some of the skill and expertise needed to fight the IRS. Just ask your attorney what other types of work he or she performs, and that will give you a sense of whether tax (and specifically, tax relief) is his or her specialty.

CPA Firms

At CPA firms, you will obviously find CPAs (i.e., certified accountants), but you may also find tax attorneys. Like law firms, it’s nice to know that at CPA firms, there is a professional behind the scenes who is ultimately responsible for any tax work performed on your behalf. The pros and cons of CPA firms are similar to those of law firms, except the method of reporting grievances with CPAs isn’t as well defined (but exists nonetheless) as it is for attorneys. CPA firms are generally a little less expensive than law firms.

“Hybrid Firms”

The hybrid firms include tax relief firms that are not law firms or CPA firms. Tax relief firms in this category employ a mix of tax professionals, including tax attorneys, CPAs, and so-called “Enrolled Agents.” Enrolled Agents are tax professionals certified by the IRS. They are neither attorneys nor CPAs, but are tax professionals that the IRS has concluded (either through examination or experience) that they are qualified to represent taxpayers before the IRS.

Many tax relief firms fit in the “hybrid” category. Lots of the tax firms that advertise on the internet and radio are made up of tax attorneys, CPAs and enrolled agents and thus are hybrid tax relief firms. The pros are that these companies generally charge less for tax relief work and are very good at performing tax services and working with IRS since tax controversy work is their specialty. The cons are that unlike law firms and CPA firms, these hybrid firms are largely unregulated, so there’s no clear channel (like, for example, the state bar for attorneys) to file grievances. Since they are unregulated, many of the hybrid firms are just plain bad and if they rip a client off, there’s little recourse, except the traditional routes of going to the BBB or other quasi-regulatory bodies.

Tax Relief Firms – Is it a law firm, a CPA firm, or a hybrid?

Here’s how you can determine whether a certain tax relief firm is a law firm, a CPA firm, or a hybrid firm. First, don’t assume anything just because an attorney or CPA works at the tax firm. As explained above, this is meaningless. Second (and the most obvious), just ask! A tax relief firm should have little problem telling you how it’s organized.

What makes the ITT Tech School of Criminal Justice Unique

A number of reasons make the ITT Tech school of criminal justice unique from other online programs. According to ITT Tech their programs are different from other online programs mainly because their programs are not completely self-guided. Instead ITT Tech lays down a firm schedule for students so that students are involved in regular courses of set duration with specific assignments and due dates.

There are other reasons why ITT Tech school of criminal justice is unique. ITT Tech is perhaps the only technical institution that offers a criminal justice program. While its technical programs are somewhat accepted, its criminal justice program has come under criminal investigation by the US Justice Department. Although the Justice Department has admitted in June 2005 that so far they have not come across any incriminating evidence, they are still investigating some of the local schools and campuses of ITT Tech which has some 80 schools spread across 30 states of the United States. Incidentally, ITT Tech has also come under investigation by the Securities Exchange Commision but again they have come out unscathed with no fines or penalties being imposed on them. But the very fact that it has come under such investigations makes it unique among educational institutions.

ITT Tech school of criminal justice is also unique that although it is a large and reputed school and a fairly old one being established in 1969, it has still chosen not to get accredtation from any of the eight RA accreditation bodies. Instead, it is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS). Although ACICS is registered with the US Department of Education as such registration is manadatory, RA accredited colleges and many employers do not accept ACICS accreditation. Hence, many RA accredited schools may refuse transfer of credits earned at ITT Tech school of criminal justice. Similarly, degrees earned from ITT Tech school of criminal justice may not be enough or adequate for getting jobs in various law enforcement areas at the local, state or federal level.

On the positive side, ITT Tech school of criminal justice is unique in that it is one of the very few schools offering a bachelor level degree in cyber security which is a very contemporary subject and has good demand in both public and private sectors.